Sab 17 Gen 2015

PROGRAMMAZIONE EPIGENETICA PERINATALE E TRANSGENERAZIONALE DELLO SVILUPPO CEREBRALE E DELLA SALUTE MENTALE INDOTTA DA STRESS

Stress-induced perinatal and transgenerational epigenetic programming of brain development and mental health
Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews Volume 48, January 2015, Pages 70–91
 
Research efforts during the past decades have provided intriguing evidence suggesting that stressful experiences during pregnancy exert long-term consequences
on the future mental wellbeing of both the mother and her baby
. Recent human epidemiological and animal studies indicate that stressful experiences in utero
or during early life may increase the risk of neurological and psychiatric disorders, arguably via altered epigenetic regulation.
Epigenetic mechanisms, such as miRNA expression, DNA methylation, and histone modifications are prone to changes in response to stressful experiences and hostile environmental factors. Altered epigenetic regulation may potentially influence fetal endocrine programming and brain development across several generations. Only recently, however, more attention has been paid to possible transgenerational effects of stress.
In this review we discuss the evidence of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of stress exposure in human studies and animal models. We highlight the complex interplay between prenatal stress exposure, associated changes in miRNA expression and DNA methylation in placenta and brain and possible links to greater risks of schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, anxiety- or depression-related disorders later in life.
Based on existing evidence, we propose that prenatal stress, through the generation of epigenetic alterations, becomes one of the most powerful influences on mental health in later life. The consideration of ancestral and prenatal stress effects on lifetime health trajectories is critical for improving strategies that support healthy development and successful aging.
 
Highlights
 
•    We provide a comprehensive overview of transgenerational epigenetic programming.
•    Stress during pregnancy programs brain development and lifetime mental health.
•    Stress-induced epigenetic signatures are transmitted to next generations.
•    Transgenerational epigenetic marks are linked to psychiatric diseases.
•    Transgenerational epigenetic signatures have predictive biomarker potential
 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25464029


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